Subfertility

1 in 6 couples have difficulty in achieving  pregnancy within 12 months.

Factors  involved alcohol intake , smoking , weight   extremes  underweight or obese , diet ,  exercise extremes under or over  , drug usage  – recreational or  body building or  increased female  age.

Medical fertility  investigations subsequently investigate ovulatory dysfunction , abnormal  semen, genito urinary  anatomical abnormality or  dysfunction