Dry mouth may present as mucous surface discomfort in the mouth , burning sensation or pain on the lips or mouth, “ bad “ taste , halitosis, denture discomfort and eating discomfort.
Sufferers may have a higher risk of dental caries , dental erosion oral infection and loss of teeth. Causes can be medication side effects form including some prescription medications, anti- cholinergics , antihistamines and sedatives . Age , diabetes and underlying auto immune diseases may also be a cause of dry mouth.
Treatment is to review for underlying dental disease , illness and medication side effects. Adequate hydration.. Regular and frequent oral hygiene including brushing /flossing / interdental brushing.
Encourage sugar free chewing (eg chewing gum) between meals , artificial saliva lubricants.
Scientific studies over 7 years extending from pre – menopause to 4 years post menopause confirm the tendency to modest weight gain in association with hormonal changes.. Subsequent trials have demonstrated that modest lifestyle intervention can contain or reduce the weight gain to a minimum over 5 year trials post onset of menopause. This could be achieved by maintaining a diet of 1300 kcal/day and an increase in energy expenditure 1000-1500 kcal/week more than their usual energy expenditure. Diets with an emphasis on increased protein and lower carbohydrate and fats were useful.
Women who were already overweight prior to menopause were more likely to have menopausal weight gain.
A common recessively inherited blood disorder resulting in excess iron in the body due to increased absorbtion from the intestine. An incidence of about 1 in 200.
May be manifested by the following symptoms –
- Fatigue and lethargy
- Cirrhosis of liver
- Liver cancer
- Skin pigmentation
- Testicular failure
- Diabetes mellitus
Diagnosis is usually by a combination of blood film , iron studies and gene testing.
Treatment is usually by venesection – draining off excess blood
All patients over 40 should be screened for glaucoma every 2 years by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. Glaucoma is the insidious painless rise in internal eye pressure that may lead to permanent loss of vision if untreated.
All diabetics should have regular 1-2 yearly eye testing, to avoid having diabetic retinopathy a treatable condition which may lead to loss of vision .
All circumstances with all or part loss of vision suddenly in one or both eyes should be reviewed to exclude diseases that may lead to permanent loss or impairment of vision Also sudden onset of flashing lights like lightning or a camera flash,or single black or red spots as these may be associated with a retinal tear, vitreous haemorrhage or retinal vascular occlusion.
1 in 6 couples have difficulty in achieving pregnancy within 12 months.
Factors involved alcohol intake , smoking , weight extremes underweight or obese , diet , exercise extremes under or over , drug usage – recreational or body building or increased female age.
Medical fertility investigations subsequently investigate ovulatory dysfunction , abnormal semen, genito urinary anatomical abnormality or dysfunction